Terrestrial Turtles Overview

Because of the scope of trying to provide good care information for each species listed, we will instead try to offer care links to other sites. The link will be hyper-linked to the species and/or genus name. Links do not indicate support of a site or its advice.

Family: Emydinae– the pond turtles (Rafinesque, 1815)

Genus: Glyptemys– American bog turtles (Agassiz, 1857)

Genus: Terrapene
American box turtles (Merrem, 1820)

  • T. carolina, Common Box Turtle (Linnaeus, 1758) N. America, 6in/15cm

    • T. c. carolina,
      Eastern Box Turtle (Linnaeus, 1758)

    • T. c. bauri,
      Florida Box Turtle (Taylor, 1895)
    • T. c. major,
      Coast Box Turtle (Agassiz, 1857)

    • T. c. mexicana,
      Mexican Box Turtle (Gray, 1849)

    • T. c. triungus,
      Three-toed Box Turtle (Agassiz, 1857)

    • T. c. yucatana,
      Yucatan Box Turtle (Boulinger, 1895)

  • T. coahuila,
    Coahuila Box Turtle (Schmidt and Owens, 1944) N. America, 6in/15cm, critically

  • T. nelson, Spotted
    Box Turtle (Stejneger, 1925) N. America, 5in/14cm

    • T. n. nelson,
      Northern Spotted Box Turtle (Stejneger, 1925)

    • T. n. klauberi,
      Southern Spotted Box Turtle (Bogert, 1942)

  • T. ornata, Ornate or Western Box Turtle (Agassiz, 1857) N. America, 5in/14cm

    • T. o. ornata,
      Ornate or Western Box Turtle (Agassiz, 1857)
    • T. o. luteola,
      Desert Box Turtle (Smith and Ramsey, 1952)

Family: Geoemydinae– semi-terrestrial Asiatic turtles (Theobald, 1868)

Genus: Cistoclemmys (or
Asian box turtles (Gray, 1856)

  • C. bourreti,
    Bourret’s Box Turtle (Obst and Reinmann, 1994) Vietnam, 7.5in/19cm, critically

  • C. flavomarginata,
    Chinese or Yellow-margined Box Turtle (Gray, 1863) China, 7in/17cm, endangered

  • C. galbinifrons,
    Indochinese or Flower-back Box Turtle (Bourret, 1939), Indochina, 7.5/19cm, endangered

    • C. g. galibinifrons,
      Flower-back Box Turtle (Bourret, 1939)

    • C. g. bourreti, Bourret’s
      Turtle (Obst and Reimann, 1994)

    • C. g. hainanensis,
      Hainan Island Box Turtle (Li, 1958)   

  • C. picturata,
    Southern Vietnam Box Turtle (Lehr, Fritz, and Obst, 1998) Vietnam,
    7in/18cm, critically

Genus: Cyclemys
Asian leaf turtles (Bell, 1834)

  • C. dentata, Asian
    Leaf Turtle (Gray, 1831) Asia, 9in/23cm, forest (as adults), endangered

  • C. oldhami,
    Southeast Asian Leaf Turtle (Gray, 1863) Indochina, 8in/20cm, endangered

Genus: Geoemyda
Black-breasted leaf turtles (Gray, 1834)

Genus: HeosemysIndochinese pond turtles (Stejneger, 1902)

  • H. depressa, Arakan
    Forest Turtle (Anderson, 1875), Indochina, 11in/29cm, critically endangered

  • H. spinosa, Spiny
    Turtle (Gray, 1830) Indochina, 9in/23cm, endangered

Genus: Luecocephalon
Sulwanese forest turtles (McCord, Iverson, Spinks and Shaffer, 2000)

  • L. yuwonoi,
    Sulawesi Forest Turtle (McCord, Iverson, and Boeadi, 1995) Indonesia,
    11in/28cm, critically

Genus: Melanochelys
Indo-asian black turtles (Gray, 1869)

  • M. tricarinata,
    Tricarinate Hill or Three-keeled Land Turtle (Blyth, 1856), India,
    6in/16cm, endangered
  • M. trijuga, Indian
    Black Turtle (Schweigger, 1812) India, 15in/38cm, endangered

Genus: Pangshura- roofed turtles (Gray, 1856)

  • P. sylhetensis,
    Assam Roofed Turtle (Jerdon, 1870) India, 9in/24cm, endangered


Pyxidea (or Cuora)- keeled box turtles (Gray, 1826?)

  • P. mouhotii,
    Keeled Box Turtle (Gray, 1826) Indochina, 7in/18cm, endangered

Central and South American wood turtles (Fitzinger, 1835)

  • R. annulata,
    Tropical Wood Turtle (Gray, 1860) Central and South America, 9in/23cm

  • R. areolata,
    Furrowed Wood Turtle (Dumeril and Bibron, 1851) Central America,

  • R. pulcherrima,
    Painted Wood Turtle (Gray, 1855) Central America, 8.5in/22cm, threatened

    • R. p. pulcherrima, Guerrero
      Turtle (Gray, 1856)

    • R. p. incisa, Incised
      Turtle (Bocourt, 1868)

    • R. p. manni, Central American Wood Turtle (Dunn, 1930)

    • R. p. rogerbarbouri,
      Western Mexico Wood Turtle (Ernst, 1978)

  • R. rubida, Oxaca
    Wood Turtle (Cope, 1870) Mexico, 9in/23cm

Genus: Vijaychelys– cane forest turtles (Prashag, Schmidt, Fritzsch, Muller, Gemel and Fritz,

  • V. silvatica,
    Cochin Cane Forest Turtle (Henderson, 1912) India, 5in/13cm, critically endangered.
Revised 5-29-2012 (C) Mark Adkins